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Albert K. Bates* is a member of The Farm spiritual community in Summertown, Tennessee and a practicing attorney. Asterisks (*) will be used in these notes to denote present or former members of The Farm. This article was first presented at the annual meeting of the National Historic Communal Societies Association in Bishop Hill, Illinois on October 17, 1987. This article is copyrighted under the Universal Copyright Convention. All rights are reserved by the author and any use in any medium is prohibited without the express consent of the author, his heirs or assigns.


1 In response to a prosecutor's objection in the Chicago Seven trial.

2 The dopler fetal pulse detector was manufactured and developed by The Farm as a joint commercial venture with Joe Jaffe, who developed the first prototype and commercial model when he worked at Smith Kline Instruments. The doppler detector used low intensity ultrasound (2.25 mHz, which yielded only 10 mW/sq.cm to body tissue) to determine fetal pulse and heart rate and to image moving areas within the body. It was powered by 4 "AA" type rechargeable NiCad batteries, and could be recharged in remote areas with a special solar cell peripheral.

3 For an overview of the physical layout, government and operating systems of The Farm generally, see: Rassman, "The Communal Landscape," Landscape Architecture, (Jan. 1978); Murray, "A 60s Commune Ages with Grace and Prosperity," US (May 16, 1978); Groller, "On The Farm With the Flower Children's Kids," Parents Magazine (July, 1979); "A Good Look at The Farm", Mother Earth News 62: 138-141 (March 1980); "Communes: A More Businesslike Style," U.S. News and World Report, (March 3, 1980); "The Farm That Keeps Flowering," Newsweek (August 10, 1981 at p. 14); Jenson, "Down on The Farm," Ithaca (NY) Times 4:30 (May 6, 1982); and Ricci, "The Farm," Detroit Free Press (Aug 31, 1986).

4 The term "hippies" is believed to be a derogatory derivative of "hipcats" coined by the Beat poets to describe the marijuana-smoking teenagers who began hanging out around them in the mid-1960s, but preferred rock music to jazz and LSD to amphetamines. The term was adopted by the young people themselves and entered the national lexicon when it began being regularly used by San Francisco columnist Herb Caen.

5 See: Wolfe, The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test (New York: Farrar, 1968); Anthony, The Summer of Love, Haight Ashbury at its Highest (San Francisco: Celestial Arts, 1980) ; Leary, Flashbacks, An Autobiography (Los Angeles: Tarcher, 1983); Perry, The Haight Ashbury: A History (New York: Random House, 1984); Sculatti and Seay, San Francisco Nights (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1985); Lee and Schlain, Acid Dreams: The CIA, LSD and the Sixties Rebellion (New York: Grove Press, 1985); Peck, Uncovering the Sixties (New York: Pantheon, 1985).

6 "The juice" as used here, refers to an enthusiastic, vibrant energy; a potent vitality that was observable in both individuals and groups. The term was often used by and about Stephen Gaskin; e.g.: Fletcher Knebel's unpublished novel about The Farm, "The Big Juice."

7 Gaskin, S.* Monday Night Class (Summertown: Book Publishing Co., 1969).

8 Gaskin, S.* The Caravan (New York: Random House, 1972). The Farm was located in Tennessee almost by accident. After going back to California, the caravan had returned to the Southeast and was searching for a large farm in Kentucky, Tennessee or Arkansas. Some of the caravaners went into a music store in Nashville to buy guitar picks and learned about available property in Summertown, sixty-five miles to the south. The caravan rented that land and later bought the farm next door.

9 See: "Why We Left The Farm," Whole Earth Review (Winter, 1985).

10 What the early buildings lacked in amenities, they made up for with colorful names, like "Acorn Falls," "So-Be-It Union," "Tortilla Flats," "Itza House," "Phil Harmonic Hall," "Kissing Tree," "The Hilkton," or the "Wide Load House" (which was bought at auction and hauled in by truck).

11 Kanies,* "Energy Planning Down on The Farm," Solar Valley Magazine (Feb, 1982 at p. 6). Seventeen of the 120 homes on The Farm had south-facing solar greenhouses.

12 See: The Sunday Tennessean, Style Section, March 16, 1980.

13 See: Godolphin, "The Dawber House," Solar Age 7:11:18-19 (Nov, 1982). The Dawber house was built in New York in 1982 by a construction crew from The Farm. It is a 2,460 square foot solar Victorian at a Catskill Mountain lakefront (lat. 42° N; 7,286 heating degree days). It has R-30 walls, R-60 ceilings, a 20-foot arched glass front, and an air-to-air heat exchange system with 70% efficiency. The estimated heating requirement for the house is 2.8 Btu/°F-day ft2 or 50 Mbtu/yr (14,650 kwh/yr) which is expected to come primarily from sunlight.

14 Another school building, which has since become the Community Center, has a rooftop-mounted, 400 sq ft, active hot-air collector comprised of black-coated varigated sheet aluminum sheathed in transparent Kalwall and backed with reflective foil.

15 The solar dehydrator is pictured in the Kanies article, op cit., note 11.

16 For a full technical description of the system, see Johnson,* "Wiring Your 12-Volt Residence," Alternate Sources of Energy Magazine (--, 198-).

17 The power provided was only used for lights and small appliances. The machine shop was wired with three-phase, 220 volt TVA current for the lathes, arc welders, and large power tools.

18 The Bergey BWC-1000 had a cut-in speed of 9 mph and turned out 1 kw at 620 rpm in 25 mph winds. It had an 8.3 foot rotor diameter and weighed 120 pounds. It was financed by research and development funding obtained from Plenty, the Farm's charitable relief and development corporation. The Bergey generator and the semiamorphous silicon cell array both were later sent to development projects in the Caribbean where they are still operating. A picture of the array, atop the Salybia School in the Carib Indian Reserve on Dominica, appears in Plenty Bulletin 3:3:3 (Fall 1987).

19 Johnson, op cit., note 16.

20 The Muscle Shoals array delivered 60 kwh/day to a 120-volt DC storage system. It was inverted to 240 volts AC to power the Visitors Center.

21 For The Farm's views on nuclear energy generally, see Bates, A.* Honicker v. Hendrie, A Lawsuit to End Atomic Power (1978) and Shutdown! Nuclear Power on Trial (1979); Bertell, No Immediate Danger (1985); and Gaskin, S.* Rendered Infamous (1981)(at pp. 241-247); all from The Book Publishing Company, Summertown.

22 See: Bates, A.,* "Portable Power from The Sun," The Tennessee Conservationist, 48:3:16 (May/June, 1982).

23 See: Wallace,* Hergenrather,* Hlady* and Savage, Pollutants in breast milk of vegetarians, New England Journal of Medicine, (March 26, 1981). An ongoing study of growth rates of vegetarian children is being performed jointly by The Farm and the National Center for Disease Control.

24 Largely from Francis Moore Lappé's seminal work, Diet for a Small Planet (San Francisco: Inst. for Food and Development Policy, 197-).

25 Many of the early recipes for soy and vegetarian dishes developed by The Farm were published in Yay Soybeans! (Summertown: The Farm, 1973); Nofziger, et al.,* Prenatal Nutrition and High Protein Recipes (Summertown: The Farm, 1974); and Hagler,* ed., The Farm Vegetarian Cookbook (Summertown: Book Publishing Co., 1975, 1978).

26 The first hour of that is just to remove a trypsin inhibiting enzyme which makes soybeans indigestible to humans. Cows have several stomachs.

27 For The Farm's tofu recipes, see: Hagler, ed.,*, Tofu Cookery (Summertown: Book Publishing Co., 1981); Hagler,* Tofu Quick and Easy (Summertown: Book Publishing Co., 1986); and see: Mozzer, Vegetarian Cooking for Diabetics (Summertown: Book Publishing Co., 1987).

28 See: Pride, ed.,* Tempeh Cookery (Summertown: Book Publishing Co., 1984).

29 Bates, C.* Lyon,* Sorenson,* Keller* and Jenkins,* "Utilization of tempeh in North America," Symposium on Indigenous Fermented Foods, Bankok, Thailand, 1977 (Ithaca: Cornell Univ., 1977); and Steinkraus, ed., Handbook of Indigenous Fermented Foods (New York: Dekker Inc., 1983).

30 Bert and Ray are Roberta Kachinsky* and Ramona Christopherson.*

31 See: Jordan* and Jenkins,* PLENTY Agricultural Program, (Guatemala City: UNICEF Guatemala, 1980); and Jenkins,* Praskin, A.* and Praskin, L.* Plenty Integrated Soy Program, Guatemala, (Summertown: Plenty USA, 1982).

32 See: " A View From Ten Years," Plenty News 4:2 (Winter 1984). Information on these projects, sponsored initially by The Farm and later by international agencies, foundations and private donations, is available from Plenty USA, 610 16th St, Su. 521, Oakland CA 94612.

33 See: Robie, Eyes of Fire: The Last Voyage of the Rainbow Warrior, (--:--, 1987) at p. 11.

34 Skinner,* "Ham Radio," 1983 unpublished monograph.

35 At one time or another, as many as 30 vehicles and 4 base stations operated as units of the KHT 1296 call sign.

36 Long,* Houston* and Keating,* The World of CB Radio, (Summertown: Book Publishing Co, 1987).

37 Miller* and Houston,* "Solar Energy Powers Two-way Radios," Development Communication Report (USAID, Oct. 1979). A picture of one of these handheld remotes also appears in Plenty News 4:2:7 (Winter 1984).

38 Long* and McClintock, "Solar Powered Two-Way Communications System Links Remote Villagers in Mayan Mountains," Communications News (Jan. 1982); Long*, "Solar-Powered Radios in Central America Open New Lines of Communication," Development Communication Report (USAID, Dec. 1981).

39 For more information about The Farm's medical program, see Ina May Gaskin's* quarterly journal, Birth Gazette, formerly The Practicing Midwife, available through The Religious and Educational Fund, 41 The Farm, Summertown TN 38483. See too: Gaskin, I.M.,* Spiritual Midwifery; Nofziger,* A Cooperative Method of Natural Birth Control; and Nofziger,* The Fertility Question, all available from The Book Publishing Company, Summertown; and Rhine,* "Exporting Emergency and Primary Medical Care to the Underdeveloped World, A New Story," Emergency Products News (Feb, 1977); "Self-trained Midwife Talks on Home Birth in Tennessee," Ob.Gyn. News 14:8 (April 15, 1979); Waldholz, "In an Emergency, South Bronx Turns to Hippie Commune," Wall Street Journal (April 15, 1981 at p. 1); Seifman, "Yippie for the Hippies," New York Post (April 16, 1981); "A Hippie Run Ambulance Corps," People 15:19:132-135 (May 18, 1981); Pombeiro, "Commune makes Bronx into a land of Plenty," Philadelphia Inquirer (June 11, 1981 at p. 1); Housel,* "Plenty," Health Services Manager (Oct. 1981); and Housel,* "Plenty of Help," EMS Today (--, 1982).

40 See: Carter, Ferman, and Hutcheson, "Pre-eclampsia and reproductive performance in a community of vegans," Southern Medical Journal 80:6:692-697.

41"Some Hippies find that High Tech Industry can keep them Happy Down on the Farm," People Magazine, (May 31, 1982 at pp. 95-98).

42 See: King, Death of the Rainbow Warrior, (New York: Penguin, 1986).

43 The system was designed to use an FM radio transmitter and the state police radio relay system to transmit the data, but for purposes of the demonstration, the monitor was hardwired into the phone system.

Albert Bates

Some other works by Albert Bates available on-line:

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